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The Resource Chemistry for the biosciences : the essential concepts, Jonathan Crowe, Tony Bradshaw, Paul Monk

Chemistry for the biosciences : the essential concepts, Jonathan Crowe, Tony Bradshaw, Paul Monk

Label
Chemistry for the biosciences : the essential concepts
Title
Chemistry for the biosciences
Title remainder
the essential concepts
Statement of responsibility
Jonathan Crowe, Tony Bradshaw, Paul Monk
Creator
Contributor
Subject
Genre
Language
eng
Cataloging source
DLC
http://library.link/vocab/creatorName
Crowe, Jonathan
Illustrations
illustrations
Index
index present
LC call number
QD415
LC item number
.C69 2006
Literary form
non fiction
Nature of contents
bibliography
http://library.link/vocab/relatedWorkOrContributorName
  • Bradshaw, Tony
  • Monk, Paul M. S
http://library.link/vocab/subjectName
  • Biochemistry
  • Chemistry
  • Biochemie
  • Chemie
Label
Chemistry for the biosciences : the essential concepts, Jonathan Crowe, Tony Bradshaw, Paul Monk
Instantiates
Publication
Bibliography note
Includes bibliographical references (p. [551]-552) and index
Contents
  • Periodic table of the elements -- 1. Introduction : why bother with chemistry? -- 1.1. Science : revealing our world -- I'm a biologist : why bother with chemistry? -- 1.2. The essential concepts -- 1.3. The language of chemistry -- Units : making sense of numbers -- Symbols -- 2. Atoms : the foundations of life -- 2.1. The chemical elements -- 2.2. Atomic composition -- Protons, electrons, and electrical charge -- Identifying the composition of an atom : atomic number and mass number -- The formation of ions -- Isotopes : varying the number of neutrons -- Relative abundances and atomic mass -- Protons and chemical identity -- 2.3. Atomic structure -- Atomic orbitals -- 2.4. The energy of atoms -- Orbitals and energy levels -- Filling up orbitals, the building up principle -- The energy of subshells -- Moving between orbitals : electron excitation -- Energy levels and quantization -- 2.5. Valence shells and valence electrons -- 2.6. The periodic table -- The variety of life : not so varied after all? --
  • 3. Compounds and chemical bonding : bringing atoms together -- 3.1. The formation of compounds -- The chemical bond : bridging the gap between atoms -- Which electron configuration is most stable? -- 3.2. Valence shells and Lewis dot symbols -- Lone pairs of electrons -- 3.3. Bond formation : redistributing valence electrons -- 3.4. The ionic bond : transferring electrons -- Ionic bonding and full shells : how many electrons are transferred? -- 3.5. The chemical formula -- 3.6. The covalent bond : sharing electrons -- Covalent compounds and electrical charge -- The molecular formula : identifying the components of a covalent compound -- Covalent bonding and the distribution of electrons -- Molecular orbitals -- Sigma and pi orbitals -- 3.7. The formation of multiple bonds -- Valency and number of bonds -- Sharing one pair of electrons : the single bond -- Sharing two pairs of electrons : the double bond -- Sharing three pairs of electrons : the triple bond -- 3.8. Dative bonding : covalent bonding with a twist -- 3.9. Aromatic compounds and conjugated bonds -- 3.10. Polyatomic compounds -- 3.11. Ionic versus covalent bonding -- Electronegativity : how easily can electrons be transferred? -- Ionic and covalent bonding in nature : which is most prevalent? --
  • 4. Molecular forces : holding it all together -- 4.1. Chemical bonding versus non-covalent forces -- Intramolecular versus intermolecular forces -- The significance of non-covalent forces -- 4.2. The key characteristics of non-covalent forces -- 4.3. Polarity and polarization -- How strongly is a bond polarized? -- Non-polar covalent bonds -- Polar bonds in non-polar molecules -- 4.4. The key non-covalent forces -- Dispersion forces -- Hydrophobic forces, and dispersion forces in biological systems -- Permanent dipolar interactions -- Hydrogen bonds -- Ionic forces -- 4.5. Non-covalent forces : strength in numbers -- 4.6. Breaking intermolecular forces : the three states -- Changing states -- The transition between states -- The impact of non-covalent interactions on melting and boiling points -- 5. Organic compounds 1 : the framework of life -- 5.1. Organic chemistry -- Carbon : its defining features -- The nature of organic compounds -- 5.2. The framework of organic compounds -- Representing chemical structures : the structural formula -- The alkanes : the backbone of organic chemistry -- The shape of organic compounds -- Physical properties of the alkanes -- Chemical properties of the alkanes -- 5.3. Functional groups and the carbon framework -- The double bond -- Physical properties of alkenes -- 5.4. Adding functional groups to the carbon framework -- Alkyl groups -- The aryl group : a special hydrocarbon group -- Functional groups and the properties of organic compounds --
  • 6. Organic compounds 2 : adding function to the framework of life -- 6.1. Organic compounds with oxygen-based functional groups -- The alcohols : the hydroxyl group -- The ethers : the alkoxy group -- The aldehydes and ketones : the carbonyl group -- The carboxylic acids : combining the hydroxyl and carbonyl groups -- The esters : a modified carboxyl group -- 6.2. Organic compounds and nitrogen-based functional groups -- The amines : the amino group -- The amides : the amide group -- 6.3. Other functional groups -- The thiols and the sulfur-based functional group -- The haloalkanes and the halogen-based functional group -- 7. Biological macromolecules : providing life's infrastructure -- 7.1. Amino acids and proteins -- The composition of amino acids -- Formation of polypeptides -- 7.2. Carbohydrates -- The composition of monosaccharides -- 7.3. Lipids -- Steroids -- Triacylglycerols -- Glycerophospholipids -- 7.4. Nucleic acids -- Nucleotides and their composition -- Formation of nucleic acids -- The shape of nucleic acids -- Nucleic acids : nature's energy stores -- 8. Molecular shape and structure 1 : from atoms to small molecules -- 8.1. The link between structure and function -- Hierarchies of structure -- 8.2. The shape of small molecules -- Bond lengths -- 8.3. Bond angles -- Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) -- VSEPR theory and the shape of molecules with multiple bonds -- 8.4. Hybridization and shape -- Hybridizing different numbers of orbitals -- 8.5. Bond rotation and conformation -- Conformation versus configuration --
  • 9. Molecular shape and structure 2 : the shape of large molecules -- 9.1. Constructing larger molecules -- The geometry of joined atoms -- The sequence of monomers within a polymer -- Bonding between monomers -- 9.2. The shape of larger molecules -- Building up structural complexity : a structural hierarchy -- The hierarchy of biological structure : an overview -- 9.3. Maintaining shape, and allowing flexibility -- The importance of structural flexibility : muscle contraction -- The importance of structural flexibility : enzymes -- 10. Chemical analysis 1 : how do we know what is there? -- 10.1. What is chemical analysis? -- 10.2. How do we separate out what is there? -- Filtration -- Chromatography -- Electrophoresis -- 10.3. How do we determine what is there? -- Measuring mass : mass spectrometry -- 10.4. Building up the picture : spectroscopic techniques -- Spectroscopy and electromagnetic radiation -- Characterizing the carbon framework : nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy -- Identifying functional groups : infrared spectroscopy -- Establishing 3-D structure : X-ray crystallography -- 11. Chemical analysis 2 : how do we know how much is there? -- 11.1. The mole -- Connecting molar quantities to mass -- 11.2. Concentrations -- Calculating the number of moles of substance in a sample of solution -- Preparing a solution of known concentration -- Calculating the concentration of a solution -- Changing the concentration : solutions and dilutions -- 11.3. Measuring concentrations -- UV-visible spectrophotometry -- Titrations -- Electrochemical sensors --
  • 12. Isomerism : generating chemical variety -- 12.1. Isomers -- 12.2. Structural isomers -- Distinguishing structural isomers -- Structural isomerism and the shape of the carbon framework -- Structural isomerism and the positioning of functional groups -- Structural isomerism : unifying chemical families -- 12.3. Stereoisomers -- Geometric isomers -- Enantiomers -- 12.4. Chirality -- How do we distinguish one enantiomer from its mirror image? -- Chirality in biological systems -- 12.5. The chemistry of isomers -- The biological chemistry of enantiomers -- The impact of chirality on medicinal chemistry -- 13. Chemical reactions : bringing molecules to life -- 13.1. What is a chemical reaction? -- The stoichiometry of chemical reactions -- 13.2. The molecular basis of chemical reactions -- How do valence electrons move during chemical reactions? -- Depicting the movement of electrons -- 13.3. Heterolytic reactions -- Oxidation and reduction -- Heterolytic reactions and the polarization of bonds -- 13.4. Homolytic reactions -- Initiation -- Propagation -- Termination -- 13.5. Reaction mechanisms -- Transition states and intermediates -- Substitution -- Addition -- Elimination -- Condensation -- Biochemical reactions : from food to energy --
  • 14. Energy : what makes reactions go? -- 14.1. What is energy? -- Kinetic energy -- Potential energy -- Chemical energy -- 14.2. Energy transfer -- The transfer of energy as work -- The transfer of energy as heat -- Heat versus temperature -- The spontaneous transfer of heat -- 14.3. Energy transfer and chemical reactions -- How can we determine the enthalpy change for a reaction? -- Depicting enthalpy changes : the energy diagram -- Enthalpy changes and the stability of chemical compounds -- 14.4. Entropy : the spread of energy as the engine of change -- The link between entropy and energy -- The overall entropy change in a universe -- 14.5. Gibbs free energy : the driving force of chemical reactions -- The Gibbs free energy of spontaneous reactions -- Gibbs free energy and cell metabolism -- 15. Kinetics : what affects the speed of a reaction? -- 15.1. The rate of a reaction -- What is the rate of a reaction? -- 15.2. The collision theory of reaction rates -- Increasing the concentration -- Increasing the temperature -- 15.3. The activation energy : getting reactions started -- Breaking the energy barrier : the transition state -- 15.4. Catalysis : lowering the activation energy -- The role of catalysts in chemical reactions -- 15.5. Enzymes : important biological catalysts -- The specificity of enzymes -- What happens during enzyme catalysis? -- 15.6. Enzyme kinetics -- Increasing substrate concentration : the limitation of the enzyme's active site -- Increasing temperature : the limitation of being a protein --
  • 16. Equilibria : how far do reactions go? -- 16.1. Equilibrium reactions -- Equilibrium reactions and chemical change -- Does it matter which reaction is 'forward' and which is 'back'? -- 16.2. Forward and back reactions : where is the balance struck? -- The equilibrium constant -- The magnitude of equilibrium constants -- 16.3. The reaction quotient -- Predicting the direction of a reaction -- 16.4. Perturbing an equilibrium -- Changing the concentration of the system -- Changing the pressure or volume of the system -- Changing the temperature -- Using chemical equilibria to our advantage -- Catalysts and chemical equilibria -- 16.5. Free energy and chemical equilibria -- Gibbs free energy and the position of equilibrium -- 17. The aqueous environment : the medium of life -- 17.1. Acids and bases : making life happen -- Defining acids and bases -- Acids and bases in aqueous solution -- Pairing up acids and bases : the conjugate acid-base pair -- 17.2. The strength of acids and bases : to what extent does the dissociation reaction occur? -- Juggling protons : the tug-of-war between conjugate acid-base pairs -- The acid dissociation constant : to what extent does an acid dissociate? -- The base dissociation constant : to what extent does a base dissociate? -- 17.3. Keeping things balanced : the ion product of water -- Making use of the ion product of water -- Linking Kw, Ka and Kb -- 17.4. Measuring concentrations : the pH scale -- The pH of strong and weak acids -- Changing pH : neutralization reactions -- pOH : the basic equivalent of pH -- 17.5. Buffer solutions : keeping pH the same -- How does a buffer solution work? -- The pH of buffer solutions -- Epilogue
Control code
67345857
Dimensions
25 cm
Edition
1st ed.
Extent
xx, 571 p.
Isbn
9780199280971
Isbn Type
(pbk.)
Lccn
2006011461
Other physical details
ill.
System control number
(OCoLC)67345857
Label
Chemistry for the biosciences : the essential concepts, Jonathan Crowe, Tony Bradshaw, Paul Monk
Publication
Bibliography note
Includes bibliographical references (p. [551]-552) and index
Contents
  • Periodic table of the elements -- 1. Introduction : why bother with chemistry? -- 1.1. Science : revealing our world -- I'm a biologist : why bother with chemistry? -- 1.2. The essential concepts -- 1.3. The language of chemistry -- Units : making sense of numbers -- Symbols -- 2. Atoms : the foundations of life -- 2.1. The chemical elements -- 2.2. Atomic composition -- Protons, electrons, and electrical charge -- Identifying the composition of an atom : atomic number and mass number -- The formation of ions -- Isotopes : varying the number of neutrons -- Relative abundances and atomic mass -- Protons and chemical identity -- 2.3. Atomic structure -- Atomic orbitals -- 2.4. The energy of atoms -- Orbitals and energy levels -- Filling up orbitals, the building up principle -- The energy of subshells -- Moving between orbitals : electron excitation -- Energy levels and quantization -- 2.5. Valence shells and valence electrons -- 2.6. The periodic table -- The variety of life : not so varied after all? --
  • 3. Compounds and chemical bonding : bringing atoms together -- 3.1. The formation of compounds -- The chemical bond : bridging the gap between atoms -- Which electron configuration is most stable? -- 3.2. Valence shells and Lewis dot symbols -- Lone pairs of electrons -- 3.3. Bond formation : redistributing valence electrons -- 3.4. The ionic bond : transferring electrons -- Ionic bonding and full shells : how many electrons are transferred? -- 3.5. The chemical formula -- 3.6. The covalent bond : sharing electrons -- Covalent compounds and electrical charge -- The molecular formula : identifying the components of a covalent compound -- Covalent bonding and the distribution of electrons -- Molecular orbitals -- Sigma and pi orbitals -- 3.7. The formation of multiple bonds -- Valency and number of bonds -- Sharing one pair of electrons : the single bond -- Sharing two pairs of electrons : the double bond -- Sharing three pairs of electrons : the triple bond -- 3.8. Dative bonding : covalent bonding with a twist -- 3.9. Aromatic compounds and conjugated bonds -- 3.10. Polyatomic compounds -- 3.11. Ionic versus covalent bonding -- Electronegativity : how easily can electrons be transferred? -- Ionic and covalent bonding in nature : which is most prevalent? --
  • 4. Molecular forces : holding it all together -- 4.1. Chemical bonding versus non-covalent forces -- Intramolecular versus intermolecular forces -- The significance of non-covalent forces -- 4.2. The key characteristics of non-covalent forces -- 4.3. Polarity and polarization -- How strongly is a bond polarized? -- Non-polar covalent bonds -- Polar bonds in non-polar molecules -- 4.4. The key non-covalent forces -- Dispersion forces -- Hydrophobic forces, and dispersion forces in biological systems -- Permanent dipolar interactions -- Hydrogen bonds -- Ionic forces -- 4.5. Non-covalent forces : strength in numbers -- 4.6. Breaking intermolecular forces : the three states -- Changing states -- The transition between states -- The impact of non-covalent interactions on melting and boiling points -- 5. Organic compounds 1 : the framework of life -- 5.1. Organic chemistry -- Carbon : its defining features -- The nature of organic compounds -- 5.2. The framework of organic compounds -- Representing chemical structures : the structural formula -- The alkanes : the backbone of organic chemistry -- The shape of organic compounds -- Physical properties of the alkanes -- Chemical properties of the alkanes -- 5.3. Functional groups and the carbon framework -- The double bond -- Physical properties of alkenes -- 5.4. Adding functional groups to the carbon framework -- Alkyl groups -- The aryl group : a special hydrocarbon group -- Functional groups and the properties of organic compounds --
  • 6. Organic compounds 2 : adding function to the framework of life -- 6.1. Organic compounds with oxygen-based functional groups -- The alcohols : the hydroxyl group -- The ethers : the alkoxy group -- The aldehydes and ketones : the carbonyl group -- The carboxylic acids : combining the hydroxyl and carbonyl groups -- The esters : a modified carboxyl group -- 6.2. Organic compounds and nitrogen-based functional groups -- The amines : the amino group -- The amides : the amide group -- 6.3. Other functional groups -- The thiols and the sulfur-based functional group -- The haloalkanes and the halogen-based functional group -- 7. Biological macromolecules : providing life's infrastructure -- 7.1. Amino acids and proteins -- The composition of amino acids -- Formation of polypeptides -- 7.2. Carbohydrates -- The composition of monosaccharides -- 7.3. Lipids -- Steroids -- Triacylglycerols -- Glycerophospholipids -- 7.4. Nucleic acids -- Nucleotides and their composition -- Formation of nucleic acids -- The shape of nucleic acids -- Nucleic acids : nature's energy stores -- 8. Molecular shape and structure 1 : from atoms to small molecules -- 8.1. The link between structure and function -- Hierarchies of structure -- 8.2. The shape of small molecules -- Bond lengths -- 8.3. Bond angles -- Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) -- VSEPR theory and the shape of molecules with multiple bonds -- 8.4. Hybridization and shape -- Hybridizing different numbers of orbitals -- 8.5. Bond rotation and conformation -- Conformation versus configuration --
  • 9. Molecular shape and structure 2 : the shape of large molecules -- 9.1. Constructing larger molecules -- The geometry of joined atoms -- The sequence of monomers within a polymer -- Bonding between monomers -- 9.2. The shape of larger molecules -- Building up structural complexity : a structural hierarchy -- The hierarchy of biological structure : an overview -- 9.3. Maintaining shape, and allowing flexibility -- The importance of structural flexibility : muscle contraction -- The importance of structural flexibility : enzymes -- 10. Chemical analysis 1 : how do we know what is there? -- 10.1. What is chemical analysis? -- 10.2. How do we separate out what is there? -- Filtration -- Chromatography -- Electrophoresis -- 10.3. How do we determine what is there? -- Measuring mass : mass spectrometry -- 10.4. Building up the picture : spectroscopic techniques -- Spectroscopy and electromagnetic radiation -- Characterizing the carbon framework : nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy -- Identifying functional groups : infrared spectroscopy -- Establishing 3-D structure : X-ray crystallography -- 11. Chemical analysis 2 : how do we know how much is there? -- 11.1. The mole -- Connecting molar quantities to mass -- 11.2. Concentrations -- Calculating the number of moles of substance in a sample of solution -- Preparing a solution of known concentration -- Calculating the concentration of a solution -- Changing the concentration : solutions and dilutions -- 11.3. Measuring concentrations -- UV-visible spectrophotometry -- Titrations -- Electrochemical sensors --
  • 12. Isomerism : generating chemical variety -- 12.1. Isomers -- 12.2. Structural isomers -- Distinguishing structural isomers -- Structural isomerism and the shape of the carbon framework -- Structural isomerism and the positioning of functional groups -- Structural isomerism : unifying chemical families -- 12.3. Stereoisomers -- Geometric isomers -- Enantiomers -- 12.4. Chirality -- How do we distinguish one enantiomer from its mirror image? -- Chirality in biological systems -- 12.5. The chemistry of isomers -- The biological chemistry of enantiomers -- The impact of chirality on medicinal chemistry -- 13. Chemical reactions : bringing molecules to life -- 13.1. What is a chemical reaction? -- The stoichiometry of chemical reactions -- 13.2. The molecular basis of chemical reactions -- How do valence electrons move during chemical reactions? -- Depicting the movement of electrons -- 13.3. Heterolytic reactions -- Oxidation and reduction -- Heterolytic reactions and the polarization of bonds -- 13.4. Homolytic reactions -- Initiation -- Propagation -- Termination -- 13.5. Reaction mechanisms -- Transition states and intermediates -- Substitution -- Addition -- Elimination -- Condensation -- Biochemical reactions : from food to energy --
  • 14. Energy : what makes reactions go? -- 14.1. What is energy? -- Kinetic energy -- Potential energy -- Chemical energy -- 14.2. Energy transfer -- The transfer of energy as work -- The transfer of energy as heat -- Heat versus temperature -- The spontaneous transfer of heat -- 14.3. Energy transfer and chemical reactions -- How can we determine the enthalpy change for a reaction? -- Depicting enthalpy changes : the energy diagram -- Enthalpy changes and the stability of chemical compounds -- 14.4. Entropy : the spread of energy as the engine of change -- The link between entropy and energy -- The overall entropy change in a universe -- 14.5. Gibbs free energy : the driving force of chemical reactions -- The Gibbs free energy of spontaneous reactions -- Gibbs free energy and cell metabolism -- 15. Kinetics : what affects the speed of a reaction? -- 15.1. The rate of a reaction -- What is the rate of a reaction? -- 15.2. The collision theory of reaction rates -- Increasing the concentration -- Increasing the temperature -- 15.3. The activation energy : getting reactions started -- Breaking the energy barrier : the transition state -- 15.4. Catalysis : lowering the activation energy -- The role of catalysts in chemical reactions -- 15.5. Enzymes : important biological catalysts -- The specificity of enzymes -- What happens during enzyme catalysis? -- 15.6. Enzyme kinetics -- Increasing substrate concentration : the limitation of the enzyme's active site -- Increasing temperature : the limitation of being a protein --
  • 16. Equilibria : how far do reactions go? -- 16.1. Equilibrium reactions -- Equilibrium reactions and chemical change -- Does it matter which reaction is 'forward' and which is 'back'? -- 16.2. Forward and back reactions : where is the balance struck? -- The equilibrium constant -- The magnitude of equilibrium constants -- 16.3. The reaction quotient -- Predicting the direction of a reaction -- 16.4. Perturbing an equilibrium -- Changing the concentration of the system -- Changing the pressure or volume of the system -- Changing the temperature -- Using chemical equilibria to our advantage -- Catalysts and chemical equilibria -- 16.5. Free energy and chemical equilibria -- Gibbs free energy and the position of equilibrium -- 17. The aqueous environment : the medium of life -- 17.1. Acids and bases : making life happen -- Defining acids and bases -- Acids and bases in aqueous solution -- Pairing up acids and bases : the conjugate acid-base pair -- 17.2. The strength of acids and bases : to what extent does the dissociation reaction occur? -- Juggling protons : the tug-of-war between conjugate acid-base pairs -- The acid dissociation constant : to what extent does an acid dissociate? -- The base dissociation constant : to what extent does a base dissociate? -- 17.3. Keeping things balanced : the ion product of water -- Making use of the ion product of water -- Linking Kw, Ka and Kb -- 17.4. Measuring concentrations : the pH scale -- The pH of strong and weak acids -- Changing pH : neutralization reactions -- pOH : the basic equivalent of pH -- 17.5. Buffer solutions : keeping pH the same -- How does a buffer solution work? -- The pH of buffer solutions -- Epilogue
Control code
67345857
Dimensions
25 cm
Edition
1st ed.
Extent
xx, 571 p.
Isbn
9780199280971
Isbn Type
(pbk.)
Lccn
2006011461
Other physical details
ill.
System control number
(OCoLC)67345857

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