The Resource Farm labor shortages and immigration policy, Linda Levine

Farm labor shortages and immigration policy, Linda Levine

Label
Farm labor shortages and immigration policy
Title
Farm labor shortages and immigration policy
Statement of responsibility
Linda Levine
Creator
Contributor
Subject
Genre
Language
eng
Summary
The connection between farm labor and immigration policies is a longstanding one, particularly with regard to U.S. employers' use of workers from Mexico. The Congress is again taking up the issue as part of a larger debate over initiation of a broad-based guest worker program, increased border enforcement, and employer sanctions to curb the flow of unauthorized workers into the United States. Two decades ago, the Congress passed the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA, P.L. 99-603) to reduce illegal entry into the United States by imposing sanctions on employers who knowingly hire individuals who lack permission to work in the country. In addition to a general legalization program, IRCA included legalization programs specific to the agricultural industry that were intended to compensate for the act's expected impact on the farm labor supply and encourage the development of a legal crop workforce. These provisions of the act, however, have not operated in the offsetting manner that was intended, as substantial numbers of unauthorized aliens have continued to join legal farmworkers in performing seasonal agricultural services (SAS). Currently, a little more than one-half of the SAS workforce is not authorized to hold U.S. jobs. Perishable crop growers contend that their sizable presence implies a shortage of native-born workers willing to undertake seasonable farm jobs. (An increasing share of IRCA-legalized farmworkers have been entering the ages of diminished participation in the SAS workforce, as well.) Grower advocates argue that farmers would rather not employ unauthorized workers because doing so puts them at risk of incurring penalties. Farmworker advocates counter that crop growers prefer unauthorized workers because they are in a weak bargaining position with regard to wages and working conditions. If the supply of unauthorized workers were curtailed, it is claimed, farmers could adjust to a smaller workforce by introducing labor-efficient technologies and management practices, and by raising wages, which, in turn, would entice more U.S. workers to seek farm employment. Farmers respond that further mechanization would be difficult for some crops, and that substantially higher wages would make the U.S. industry uncompetitive in the world marketplace -- without expanding the legal farm force. These remain untested arguments because perishable crop growers have rarely, if ever, operated without unauthorized aliens in their workforces. Trends in the agricultural labor market generally do not suggest the existence of a nationwide shortage of domestically available farmworkers, in part because the government's databases cover authorized and unauthorized employment. (This finding does not preclude the possibility of spot labor shortages, however.) Farm employment did not show the same upward trend of total U.S. employment during the 1990s expansion. The length of time hired farmworkers are employed has changed little or decreased over the years. Their unemployment rate has varied little and remains well above the U.S. average, and underemployment among farmworkers also remains substantial. These agricultural employees earn about 50 centers for every dollar paid to other employees in the private sector
Member of
Cataloging source
SNM
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HeinOnline
http://library.link/vocab/creatorName
Levine, Linda
Government publication
federal national government publication
Illustrations
illustrations
Index
no index present
Literary form
non fiction
Nature of contents
  • dictionaries
  • bibliography
http://library.link/vocab/relatedWorkOrContributorName
Library of Congress
Series statement
CRS report for Congress
Series volume
RL 30395
http://library.link/vocab/subjectName
  • Agricultural laborers
  • Agricultural laborers, Foreign
  • Agricultural laborers, Foreign
  • Foreign workers
  • United States
  • Agricultural laborers
  • Agricultural laborers, Foreign
  • Emigration and immigration
  • Foreign workers
  • United States
Label
Farm labor shortages and immigration policy, Linda Levine
Instantiates
Publication
Note
  • "Updated March 29, 2006."
  • Title from title screen (viewed April 9, 2006)
Bibliography note
Includes bibliographical references
Carrier category
online resource
Carrier category code
cr
Carrier MARC source
rdacarrier
Color
black and white
Content category
text
Content type code
txt
Content type MARC source
rdacontent
Control code
66009330
Dimensions
unknown
Extent
1 online resource (17 pages)
Form of item
online
Media category
computer
Media MARC source
rdamedia
Media type code
c
Specific material designation
remote
System control number
(OCoLC)66009330
System details
  • Mode of access: World Wide Web
  • System requirements: Adobe Acrobat Reader
Label
Farm labor shortages and immigration policy, Linda Levine
Publication
Note
  • "Updated March 29, 2006."
  • Title from title screen (viewed April 9, 2006)
Bibliography note
Includes bibliographical references
Carrier category
online resource
Carrier category code
cr
Carrier MARC source
rdacarrier
Color
black and white
Content category
text
Content type code
txt
Content type MARC source
rdacontent
Control code
66009330
Dimensions
unknown
Extent
1 online resource (17 pages)
Form of item
online
Media category
computer
Media MARC source
rdamedia
Media type code
c
Specific material designation
remote
System control number
(OCoLC)66009330
System details
  • Mode of access: World Wide Web
  • System requirements: Adobe Acrobat Reader

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