The Resource Weapons of mass destruction : trade between North Korea and Pakistan, Sharon A. Squassoni

Weapons of mass destruction : trade between North Korea and Pakistan, Sharon A. Squassoni

Label
Weapons of mass destruction : trade between North Korea and Pakistan
Title
Weapons of mass destruction
Title remainder
trade between North Korea and Pakistan
Statement of responsibility
Sharon A. Squassoni
Creator
Contributor
Subject
Genre
Language
eng
Summary
In October 2002, the United States confronted North Korea about its alleged clandestine uranium enrichment program. Soon after, the Agreed Framework collapsed, North Korea expelled international inspectors, and withdrew from the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT). U.S. intelligence officials claimed Pakistan was a key supplier of uranium enrichment technology to North Korea, and some media reports suggested that Pakistan had exchanged centrifuge enrichment technology for North Korean help in developing longer range missiles. U.S. official statements leave little doubt that cooperation occurred, but there are significant details missing on the scope of cooperation and the role of Pakistan2s government. Further, both North Korea and Pakistan have denied that nuclear technology was provided to North Korea. This report describes the nature and evidence of the cooperation between North Korea and Pakistan in missiles and nuclear weapons, the impact of cooperation on their weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programs and on the international nonproliferation regime. It will be updated as events warrant. The roots of cooperation are deep. North Korea and Pakistan have been engaged in conventional arms trade for over thirty years. In the 1980s, as North Korea began successfully exporting ballistic missiles and technology, Pakistan began producing highly enriched uranium (HEU) at the Khan Research Laboratory. Benazir Bhutto2s 1993 visit to Pyongyang seems to have kicked off serious missile cooperation, but it is harder to pinpoint the genesis of Pakistan2s nuclear cooperation with North Korea. By the time Pakistan probably needed to pay North Korea for its purchases of medium-range No Dong missiles in the mid-1990s (upon which its Ghauri missiles are based), Pakistan2s cash reserves were low. Pakistan could offer North Korea a route to nuclear weapons using HEU that could circumvent the plutonium-focused 1994 Agreed Framework and be difficult to detect. WMD trade between North Korea and Pakistan raises significant issues for congressional oversight. Are there sources of leverage over proliferators outside the nonproliferation regime? Do sanctions, interdiction, and intelligence as nonproliferation tools need to be strengthened? How is the threat of proliferation interpreted within the nexus of terrorism and WMD? Further, has counterterrorism cooperation taken precedence over nonproliferation cooperation? If so, are there approaches that would make both policies mutually supportive? See also CRS Issue Brief IB91141 North Korea2s Nuclear Weapons Program, and CRS Report RS21391, North Korea2s Nuclear Weapons: How Soon an Arsenal?
Member of
Additional physical form
Also available in print version
Cataloging source
UUS
http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/collectionName
HeinOnline U.S. Congressional Documents Library
http://library.link/vocab/creatorName
Squassoni, Sharon A
Government publication
federal national government publication
Index
no index present
LC call number
JK1108.S782
LC item number
W427 2003 ONLINE
Literary form
non fiction
http://library.link/vocab/relatedWorkOrContributorName
Library of Congress
Series statement
CRS report for Congress
Series volume
RL31900
http://library.link/vocab/subjectName
  • Weapons of mass destruction
  • Weapons of mass destruction
  • Arms race
  • Arms transfers
  • Arms transfers
  • Arms race
  • Arms transfers
  • Weapons of mass destruction
  • Korea (North)
  • Pakistan
Label
Weapons of mass destruction : trade between North Korea and Pakistan, Sharon A. Squassoni
Instantiates
Publication
Note
  • "May 7, 2003."
  • Title from web page (viewed July 18, 2003)
Carrier category
online resource
Carrier category code
  • cr
Carrier MARC source
rdacarrier
Color
black and white
Content category
text
Content type code
  • txt
Content type MARC source
rdacontent
Control code
52641329
Dimensions
unknown
Extent
1 online resource (15 [i.e. 18] pages)
Form of item
online
Media category
computer
Media MARC source
rdamedia
Media type code
  • c
Specific material designation
remote
System control number
(OCoLC)52641329
System details
  • Mode of access: World Wide Web
  • System requirements: Adobe Acrobat Reader
Label
Weapons of mass destruction : trade between North Korea and Pakistan, Sharon A. Squassoni
Publication
Note
  • "May 7, 2003."
  • Title from web page (viewed July 18, 2003)
Carrier category
online resource
Carrier category code
  • cr
Carrier MARC source
rdacarrier
Color
black and white
Content category
text
Content type code
  • txt
Content type MARC source
rdacontent
Control code
52641329
Dimensions
unknown
Extent
1 online resource (15 [i.e. 18] pages)
Form of item
online
Media category
computer
Media MARC source
rdamedia
Media type code
  • c
Specific material designation
remote
System control number
(OCoLC)52641329
System details
  • Mode of access: World Wide Web
  • System requirements: Adobe Acrobat Reader

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